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WHAT DETERMINES THE DESCRIPTION OF A TABLE SAW
The description of a Table Saw is determined by the maximum diameter of the blade it will accept, whether it is an 8-1/4", 10", or 12". As an example, the TRADESMAN Model #8030A 10" Bench Table Saw accepts a 10" blade. Equipped with this blade, the unit will have a 3-1/8" depth of cut at 90 degrees.
On this machine as well as on most table saws, a smaller diameter blade may be used and the effect will be an increase in the motors' performance. This smaller diameter blade will cause less strain on the motor which is important when performing ripping operations. By replacing the 10" blade with an 8-1/4", the saw will still permit a depth of cut of 2-1/4". This is more than sufficient to cut a 2" x 4" at 90 degrees.
Motor specifications are based on the following:
2) Horsepower Rating
3) Developed Horsepower
Ampere is the unit of measurement for current that a motor draws. This amount determines the horsepower.
2) HORSEPOWER RATING
The actual rated H.P. is the no-load output of the motor.
3) DEVELOPED HORSEPOWER
The developed H.P. is the maximum H.P. output when the unit is underload in the cutting operation.
Two motor systems are utilized by manufacturers of table saws:
A) UNIVERSAL and B) INDUCTION.
A) UNIVERSAL MOTOR
Found on the TRADESMAN Model #8030A 10" Bench Table Saw, the UNIVERSAL motor also called a brush type, is a high speed motor usually turning at 15,000 to 18,000 RPM. Through use of a belt or gears, the speed of the blade is reduced to about 5,000 RPM. Less expensive than the INDUCTION motor, it is found on most Bench and Miter Saws. The advantage of the UNIVERSAL motor is its high torque characteristics, resulting in higher horsepower ratings. Also, because of its small size, it is ideally suited for Bench Top or Hand Tools. The term Universal means the motor will run on 50 or 60 cycles and on alternating or direct current.
B) INDUCTION MOTORS
Used on TRADESMAN Model #8000T Floor Model Table Saws, the INDUCTION motor is a lower RPM unit, usually 3450 for a table saw. (Can be 1725 for other units such as Scroll Saws, Drill Presses, etc.). Quieter operating than a UNIVERSAL motor, it can be utilized either on a direct drive (with the motor arbor having no belts or gears) or belt driven (usually a V-belt system because the motor is too large to fit within the unit's base). An INDUCTION motor is usually listed with its rated horsepower and is found on less price sensitive floor Model machines. Also, it is often referred to as a continual duty motor because of its ability to operate for longer periods of time.
THERMAL OVERLOAD PROTECTORS
Because of the high temperatures produced by the UNIVERSAL motor during cutting operations, the unit should be protected by a THERMAL OVERLOAD RESET. Most resets used today are activated on amperage only. A true THERMAL PROTECTOR monitors the motor's temperature, as well as amperage. With excessive temperature or amperage, the switch will automatically shut down the motor until cooled to a proper operating level. The unit may then be reactivated by resetting the switch. CAUTION: On/Off switch should be switched to the off position before resetting the overload protector.
The Bench Table Saws are a natural first choice as they offer a low price point, allowing the first time purchaser to get more accuracy than is permitted on a hand held circular saw.
The more avid woodworker and tradesman often select the larger stationary type table saw. One of the main selling features of these floor Model units is the larger working surfaces up to 20" x 27" plus extensions. In addition, the table top on the larger units are normally made of cast iron, as compared to die-cast aluminum found on bench saws. The larger cast iron units allow for greater accuracy, but the weight factor prohibits their portability. NOTE: Periodically all cast iron ground tables should have a thin coat of paste wax applied to keep the surface free from rust.
The tilting arbor table saw is basic to all workshops and most often the first stationary machine considered. In just about any project undertaken, the table saw will be used. A fence, miter gauge, and blade guard are included with the basic machine.
There is no limit to the many operations you can do on a tilting arbor saw with expert results. You can crosscut, rip, and miter cut wood and other materials. You can make rabbet and mortise cuts for frames, screens, etc. Rough lumber can be cut to size and shape desired.
Crosscutting is the operation of cutting wood across the grain. At least one edge of the board should be as straight as possible. Hold this edge of the work firmly against the miter gauge. Usually, the miter gauge is placed in back of the work. Miter gauges can be reversed when crosscutting wide boards and pushed ahead of the board while holding board firmly against the face of the miter gauge.
Rip sawing is cutting the wood with the grain, The fence is usually used to control the width of the cut. At least one edge of the work should be as straight as possible as it is guided along the fence. When sawing narrow boards or any ripping operation always use a push stick.
Caution: See operator's manual under ripping small pieces.
Miters are crosscuts at an angle. At least one edge of the work should be straight as possible. The miter gauge should be set at the desired angle to make the cut. The straight edge of the material should be held tightly in position against the face of the miter gauge.
If wide or long work is sawed, it is advised to screw or bolt an auxiliary extension board to the face of the miter gauge. To prevent binding and chattering, this board should be attached so there will be 1/8" space between it and the saw blade. A piece of fine sandpaper cemented (rough side out) to the face of the miter gauge or auxiliary extension board will help to hold the work in position.
SANDING WITH THE TABLE SAW
The table saw can be a very efficient disc sander by simply using a sanding disc in place of the saw blade. The sanding disc can have different grits of sandpaper on either side.
TABLE SAW STAND
Most floor Model Table Saws have a steel stand as standard equipment, The use of the stand is very important with a Table Saw. It provides the recommended opening beneath the saw for both escape of sawdust and air circulation for proper cooling of the motor. Never operate the table saw on a flat workbench where there is no access for the escape of the sawdust.
On Table Saws where the stand is not offered as standard equipment, such as the TRADESMAN Model #8030A Bench Table Saw, pre-drilled holes in the base are provided for use with an accessory Saw Stand Model #9910. Should a stand not be purchased, plans are provided in the owner's manual for building a custom stand.
All TRADESMAN Table Saws are equipped with a 10" Combination Saw blade. This blade is designed for both crosscutting and ripping operations. All do-it-yourself Bench and Stationary units have standardized to a 5/8" blade arbor, no matter what diameter blade is used.
Because the actual depth of cut required for most cutting operations is less than 2" (a 2" X 4" would require a 1-1/2" elevation of the blade), when buying a replacement blade a 10" is not always the answer. The Model #8030A 10" Bench Table Saw provides a maximum depth of cut of 3-1/8". Using an 8- 1/4" blade would lower the maximum depth of cut to 2-1/4", still allowing for over 90% of cutting operations. The use of an 8-1/4" blade does several things; A) Reduces the cost of the blade, B) Increases the cutting power of the saw, and C)Increases the life of the motor.
NOTE: Elevation of saw blade should not exceed 1/8" above thickness of material being cut.
SELECTION OF SAW BLADES
Five types of circular blades are used for all ordinary woodworking:
RIP SAW BLADES
The rip saw blade is designed for greatest efficiency when sawing a board lengthwise in the direction of the grain. When a given job consists entirely of rip-sawing, use of the rip saw blade will save time.
COMBINATION SAW BLADES
The combination blade is designed to give the greatest efficiency in both crosscutting and ripping when the job consists of general crosscutting, ripping, and mitering. The crosscut teeth shear the wood in parallel grooves and the racer teeth chisel the fibers from between. This blade cuts slower than blades designed for specialized function. However, for general purpose work, it saves the time required to constantly change blades.
CROSSCUT SAW BLADES
The crosscut saw blade is designed to cut across the grains of a board. The teeth are designed to slice cleanly.
HOLLOW GROUND BLADES
The hollow ground blade is designed for specialized sawing. The teeth are not bent outward to form a set. The body of the blade is ground in on both sides to allow clearance and permit free running without binding. Since the teeth are not bent outward, they do not scratch the sides of the kerf. Therefore, the cut edge of the board looks as if it had been planed.
CARBIDE TIP BLADES
The #1 purchased accessory for a Table Saw is a Carbide Tipped Saw blade. Carbide blades have tungsten carbide tips welded onto a steel body. These carbide tips outlast the teeth on ordinary blades up to 20 times. The number of teeth on these blades determines the desired results. Eighteen, twenty-four, or twenty-eight carbide tips are good for general purpose work, as they cut freer with less motor strain. However, the finish will not be as good as a blade with 40 to 60 teeth, as these are the type used in finishing operations. Resharpening these blades is a job for a professional.
DADO INSERT PLATES AND BLADES
The dado blade is used to cut rabbets and grooves of various widths and depths. The dado set is composed of two outside saw blades and four to five chippers. If two or more chippers are used, they should be spaced as equally as possible around the circumference of the assembled head to avoid vibration. First, mount one the saw blades, which are the combination type, on the saw arbor. Then mount one or more chipper blades. The cutting edges of the chipper blades are swaged or spread. The chipper cutting edges should coincide with the gullets (space between tips of adjacent saw teeth) of both saw blades.
After the assembled dado head is placed in position, replace outer washer and arbor nut. Be sure to tighten arbor nut securely. If dado set is too wide outside washer can be left off. Because of the high RPM speeds adjustable or wobble dadoes must not be used on any machine with an universal motor, as it could be dangerous to the operator.
CAUTION: ALWAYS REMEMBER TO REPLACE THE BLADE GUARD ASSEMBLY AFTER USE
Grooves cut across the grain of the wood are called dadoes. They are usually cut at right angles, but may also be cut at other angles. As operations with a dado head are similar to using a saw blade, the miter gauge should be used in the same manner.
A channel cut made with the grain of the wood is called a groove. As operations with a dado blade are similar to using a saw blade, the fence should be used in the same manner suggested for rip sawing,
A rabbet is a step-like cut made on the end or edge of a board. They are cut when the fence is used as a guide. The dado assembly should be slightly wider than the rabbet desired to insure a clean edge. The rabbet should be cut on the edge of the board furthest from the fence.
For any dado operation, the insert plate located on the top of the saw must be replaced with a Dado Insert Plate. This dado insert has an increased width opening that allows the dado blade to be elevated above the work table.
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